There are several fundamental physical constants that are considered to be universal constants, meaning they are constant throughout the universe and do not change with time. Some of the most fundamental physical constants include:

Speed of Light in Vacuum (c): The speed of light in vacuum is approximately 299,792,458299,792,458 meters per second. This constant plays a fundamental role in Einstein's theory of relativity and is a fundamental constant of nature.

Gravitational Constant (G): The gravitational constant is approximately 6.674×10−116.674×10−11 cubic meters per kilogram per second squared. It determines the strength of the gravitational force between two objects and plays a crucial role in Newton's law of universal gravitation and Einstein's theory of general relativity.

Planck's Constant (h): Planck's constant is approximately 6.626×10−346.626×10−34 joule seconds. It is a fundamental constant in quantum mechanics and determines the relationship between the energy and frequency of a photon.

Boltzmann Constant (k): The Boltzmann constant is approximately 1.380649×10−231.380649×10−23 joules per kelvin. It relates the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas to the temperature of the gas and is fundamental in statistical mechanics and thermodynamics.

Elementary Charge (e): The elementary charge is approximately 1.602×10−191.602×10−19 coulombs. It is the fundamental unit of electric charge and plays a crucial role in electromagnetism.
These constants are considered to be universal because they are thought to be the same everywhere in the universe and at all times, regardless of the specific conditions or location. They form the foundation of our understanding of the physical laws that govern the universe.
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